Non-harmfulness (harmlessness). To not wish harm to any living creature — not even to any lifeless object. Ahimsa is about the intent, rather than the action itself. It is an attitude of universal benevolence.[ref]Demystifying Patanjali The Yoga Sutras (Aphorisms), Swami Kriyananda. “Sadhana Pada – the Second Book”[/ref]
In Orthodox Hinduism
The Hindu mystic Patanjali wrote a scripture called the Yoga Sutras, where he outlines yamas (restraints, or what one should not do) and niyamas (observances, or what one should do). Ahimsa is the first of the yamas. The Yoga Sutras say that once ahimsa is mastered, even wild animals and ferocious criminals will become tame and harmless in our presence.
Traditionally ahimsa is taken to mean that a person should not kill. This is why vegetarianism is so widespread in India.[ref]Encyclopedia Brittanica, “Ahimsa” (2015)[/ref] Some Hindus believe that one should not kill or harm anything even to save one’s own life. [ref name=”artandscience”]The Art and Science of Raja Yoga, Swami Kriyananda. Step 4, “Yama”[/ref]
The term was popularized in modern times by Mahatma Gandhi. By non-violent resistance he led India to political emancipation from Britain.[ref]Gandhi and Non-Violence, William Borman. Chapter 1, “Ahimsa: Gandhi’s Concept” (1986)[/ref]
The Deeper Meaning of Ahimsa According to Swami Kriyananda
“Ahimsa, rightly understood, is the ultimate weapon; it turns one’s enemy into a friend, thereby banishing the possibility of further conflict. In the practice of yoga, it is important to understand that the same life flows in the veins of all creatures.” – Swami Kriyananda
What Patanjali referred to, essentially, was the attitude of the mind, rather than the literal acts of the body. It is one’s attitude that can either lead him toward liberation, or hold him in greater bondage. An attitude of harmlessness (and its corollary, a feeling of universal benevolence) is what is meant by ahimsa.
The principle of ahimsa must be understood in subtle ways, not only in gross. To harm anyone in the slightest way, even by disrespect, will harm the person doing the action as well as the one receiving it. The perfect practice of ahimsa, then, is very rare. For though not many people would actually kill their fellows, it is common to find people slashing at one another with angry words, or with contemptuous glances.[backref name=”artandscience” /]